Nanotechnology is often described as an emerging technology – one that not only holds promise for society but also is capable of revolutionizing our approaches to common problems. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano-/biomaterials and nanodevices are fabricated and can be controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and nonliving matter at size below 100nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies are economically the most important fields of nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing, since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market. The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will boost functionalized nanomaterials for the development of environmental devices. Revolutionary new approaches are required in the near future to meet the future nanotechnology challenges; therefore, the development of specific guidance for the safety evaluation of nanoproducts is strongly recommended. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. All rights reserved.